NETWORKDAYS.INTL Weekend working days

Returns the number of net working days between two provided days excluding specified weekend days and holidays.Google has introduced the Networkdays.intl function in December’ 2013

Let’s look at the syntax of the function

NETWORKDAYS.INTL(start_date, end_date, [weekend], [holidays])

Always remember when anything is square brackets [ ] that argument is optional, when ever you are using the fourth argument you have to use weekend argument otherwise you may get #Value error

the list of weekend are as follows:

Let’s try to understand the with an example.

Suppose we have dates in the cell B1 to B10 and we have holidays from Cell D2:D3 to find out the list working days between the given date we use the networkdays.intl function.

the formula in i used in the cell D5 is


in this example i have assumed that Saturday & Sundays are holidays

the same thing can be written using binary


we will get the same results as 4

the advantage of writing with the binary form is suppose working days are only Friday, Saturday, Sunday and Monday something like a weekend market, we do not have such option in the weekend argument, so we have use the binary format. The formula will be


the result you will get is 7

Query function with manipulation of dates

This post is in continuation of my earlier post on query function. for basic understand the query function have a look at the following link

Now we will see how to manipulate Query function with DATES, manipulation of date is query function is tricky. some query does not understand the date because in the spreadsheets dates are treated as serial numbers and query understanding it as text. We have to trick the query function

(Q) Suppose we want list the data based on the certain dates referring to cell

we will continue to use the old example in my first query post

solution is as follows:

=QUERY(A:D;”select * where D>=date”””&text(F1,”yyyy-mm-dd”)&””” and D<=date”””&text(G1,”yyyy-mm-dd”)&””””)


where F1 is the start date and G1 is the end date


(1) There are three double quote before text function and after text function

(2) we have used the text function to convert the numbers into text

(3) date has to be formatted in yyyy-mm-dd format only.

the link to spreadsheet is available in my first blogpost listed above


Query function refering to cell value

This post is in continuation of my earlier post on query function. for basic understand the query function have a look at the following link

Now we look at the referring to cell value within query function so that query function will be more robust.

(Q) What is sales value during the period for Britney

we will continue use our old data set

(A) The formula we are using is

=QUERY(A:D;”select B, Sum(C) where B ='”&F1&”‘ group by B label Sum(C) ‘Sales'”;1)

the results will be

where cell F1 contains the criteria in our example Britney

now we do not need to change the formula, if you change the cell value of F1 to from Britney to Paris the query function recalculates the values

the results will be



(1) Remember query function is case sensitive

(2) if you use paris instead of Paris you may get the null string without any error

(3) observe the syntax after where B =

(4) if Cell F1 is string you have use single-quote double-quote ampersand then F1 similarly after F1 also, this is a syntax you have to follow

Single column manipulation using query function

This post is in continuation of my earlier post on query function. for basic understand the query function have a look at the following link

we will continue to use my earlier example only.

suppose if we want to count the First name and list them.

we can do this if we have multiple columns of data, suppose we have only one column we want to count as well as list them. you cannot do that using query function alone. we have to manipulate data using the Index function.

the formula for this is


this will create an array 2 X  26 on fly

Now we have two column of data we can use the query function to manipulate this

=query(index(if({1,1},B2:B27));”select Col1,count(Col2) where Col1 <>” group by Col1 label count(Col2) ‘Count’ “)

the result will be



(1) We have not used the A, B instead we have used Col1 and Col2

(2) because the data is generated using the index function on fly

(3) we can create the copy of existing data using array constants

(4) the logic is within {1,1}

(5) you must use comma (in our example the data is single column), you should not use semi-colon

(6) comma is used for column manipulation and semi-colon is used for row manipulation

(7) this undocumented rules of array


Query function in Google Spreadsheets

Most versatile effective function and unique to Google Spreadsheets. I am documenting this function to understand it properly and for those who do not have programming background. I do not have previous experience with query. i will try to illustrate with examples.

If you have confusion and stuck some where please post your questions Google Docs forum at the following link!categories/docs/spreadsheets. There are experts in this area waiting for your questions.

Google Spreadsheet query is designed to be similar to SQL  with few exceptions. it is a subset of  SQL with a few feature of its own. if you are familiar with SQL it will be easy to learn.

The Syntax of the function is as follow:

QUERY(data, query, headers)

DATA: it can be columns(A:C open ranges) of data you want to query, range of cells such as A1:C10, result of function such as importrange, index etc.,

QUERY: It is similar to SQL with small exceptions there is no FROM clause in the this since DATA itself is acting like a FROM clause.

HEADERS: If your data has headers in the row you can specify this here (suppose your first row has headers you can specify this as 1)


  1. column headers have to capital letter such A, B, C if you are picking up the raw data with in the same spreadsheet.

  2. if you are using the array formulas to manipulate the data (Index, Filter, importrange to name a few) then column headers will Col1, Col2, Col3 etc. observe i have used C capital letter in Col1. this is syntax you have to follow this otherwise you will get a parse error

  3. parse error:  an error of language resulting from code that does not conform to the syntax of the programming language; “syntax errors can be recognized at compilation time”

  4. Data types: supports data types are string, number, boolean, date, datetime and timeof day. all values of the column will have a data type that matches the column type or a null value

  5. The syntax of the query language is composed of the following clauses. Each clause starts with one or two keywords. All clauses are optional. Clauses are separated by spaces. The order of the clauses must be as follows:




    Select which columns to return, and in what order, if omitted, all the table’s columns are returned, in their default order


    Return only rows that match a condition. if omitted, all rows are returned.

    group by

    Aggregates values across rows


    Transforms distinct values in columns into new column

    order by

    sorts rows by values in columns


    Limits the number of returned rows


    skips a given number of first rows


    sets column labels


    formats the values in certain columns using given formatting patterns


    sets additional options

    now let try to understand these clauses with an example

  6. our data set like this


  7. try this formula

    =QUERY(A:D;”select A,B”;1) the result will be as show in the below image

  8. We have some special keywords called functions, Functions are bits of code that perform an operation on a value or values. The first we will see is to perform a mathematical operation on a column. We will see Sum function which by totaling the values in a column designated by parentheses.

    suppose we want to Sum Column C where the Column B is Nicole

    =QUERY(A:D;”select B, Sum(C) where B = ‘Nicole’ group by B”;1)

  9. the result will be



    (1) you have to use S capital in the Sum followed by column you want sum in parentheses

    (2) whenever you are using the group by clause same column has to be selected in the select clause otherwise you may get value error

    (3) condition you want the check in the column B has to be in single quote

    this can be sorted using the order by clause

    =QUERY(A:D;”select B, Sum(C) where B <>” group by B order by B asc”;1)

    the result will be


    (1) observe the column 1 has been sorted in ascending order

    (2) to get the the descending order you can use the desc instead of asc

  11. you can also sort the based on the result of the Sum(C)

    =QUERY(A:D;”select B, Sum(C) where B <>” group by B order by Sum(C) desc”;1)

    the results will be


    (1) we have sorted data by descending order based on Sum of sales

    (2) you have to follow the order of clause listed above

    We can also limit the results top 3 or top 2 using the limit clause

    =QUERY(A:D;”select B, Sum(C) where B <>” group by B order by Sum(C) desc limit 3″;1)

    We can also the name the column sum Sales as Top 3 sales

    =QUERY(A:D;”select B, Sum(C) where B <>” group by B order by Sum(C) desc limit 3 label Sum(C) ‘Top 3 Sales'”;1)

    We can also pivot the data based on date in the D column.

    =QUERY(A:D;”select B, Sum(C) where B <>” group by B pivot D”;1)


    (1) You might have observed the column D is not selected the select clause

    (2) Date are formatted in yyyy-mm-dd format

    (3) pivot is unique to google Sheets Query function

  12. In the next blog post we will see how to manipulate data using the cell value

  13. the link the spreadsheet is as follows:

Project IRR Vs. Equity IRR

A good principle to follow is to separate the project decision from the financing decision i.e.the project should be viable on a standalone basis, independent of the financing mix.

Therefore, initially IRR is determined at the project level, without considering cash flows related to financing. In this computation of project IRR, interest and debt-service payments are kept out.

As a separate exercise, debt-­service payments are introduced in the calculations and IRR is re-worked. Since the cash flows after debt-­service payments belong to equity shareholders, this re-worked IRR is essentially the return on equity invested in the project i.e.  Equity IRR.

Suppose that a project entails an investment of Rs. 600 crore. It is expected to generating operating cash flow of Rs. 100 crore in Year 1, going up by 30% each year for the following 3 years. At the end of Year 4, the project will have a salvage value of Rs. 300 crore. It is proposed to finance the project with a 2:1 debt­equity ratio. Given the company’s credit rating, it will be possible to borrow money for the project at 12% p.a., payable annually.


  Year 0 Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4
Initial Investment


Operating Cash flow









Salvage Value












  Year 0 Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4
Cost of the Project


Loan Mobilised


Equity Invested


Operating Cash flow









Loan Repayment
Principle Repaid










Salvage Value










Birthday wish from Google

Today i received a surprise Birthday wish from Google with its custom build Doodle

you need to login to the Chorme to receive this Doodle. if you click cake it will take you to google+ page.

Birthday wish from Google

How much interest I can afford

The RATE function returns the interest rate of an investment, loan, or annuity based on a series of regular periodic cash flows.

The syntax of the rate function is

RATE(NPER, PMT, PV, FV, type, guess)


NPER:  The number of periods. NPER is a number value and must be greater than or equal to 0.


PMT: The payment made or amount received each period. payment is a number value. At each NPR, an amount received is a positive amount and an amount invested is a negative amount. It is simple monthly payment you are intended to make or receive


PV: (present value) The value of the initial investment, or the amount of the loan or annuity. present-value is a number value. At time 0, an amount received is a positive amount and an amount invested is a negative amount. In other words the amount of loan you intended to take


FV: An optional argument that represents the value of the investment or remaining cash value of the annuity (positive amount), or the remaining loan balance (negative amount), after the final payment. future-value is a number value. it could be ballon amount.


Type: Type (optional) defines whether the payment is due at the beginning (1) or the end (0) of a period


Guess: Guess (optional) determines the estimated value of the interest with iterative calculation. normally it is ignored


lets understand the function with an example:

I want to borrow 80,000 and make monthly payment for 10 years. The maximum monthly payment i can afford is 1,000. what is the maximum interest rate i can afford?



In the above example

NPER: number of month here we have been provided with 10 year that means NPER is equal to 10 X 12 = 120

PMT: Payment for the period, in our example it is given as 1,000 per month

PV: present value. here the present value will be 80,000 which is amount i am borrowing now. we are inputting this value with – before it, because it will be cash outflow for the lender.

FV: it is an optional argument in out case we will put 0

Type: it can be either 1 or 0,  in our example we are putting 0 assuming the installment will be paid at the end of the period (i.e. month)

Guess: we can leave this argument


the formula in cell B5 is =RATE(B2,B3,-B1,0,0)


I got the as 0.007241020100393 which i formatted using the % to convert it 0.72%

the above rate is period rate we have to convert this into annual rate

to convert this to annual rate we have multiplied it with 12


for the formula in cell B5 is =RATE(B2,B3,-B1,0,0)*12

the solution to the problem is

i can afford up to 8.69% interest for my loan of 80,000/- for a period of 10 years


There is no function called Averageif in google docs spreadsheet as on October 2012. The average function return the arithmetic mean of a given data. If you want to eliminate certain value in the data and calculate the average of the remaining number the averageif comes into picture. We will using the average function only but we can manipulate in such a way to get the desired results

Example 1:


The data is from Cell G2 to G11 containing 10 number if we want to calculate the average of numbers the formula will be =AVERAGE(G2:G11) which is equal to 138.4.

Suppose if we want to eliminate 0 (ZERO) while calculating the average then the formula will be


the result will be 173 as shown the above image.

Example 2:


in the above data set we want to calculate the average of the number which are between 150 and 160.


to achieve this we have used the following formula in cell B12



similarly the alternatives will be




=AVERAGE(QUERY(B2:B11;”select B where B >=150 and B <=160″))

the above formula uses single IF statement whereas the previous formula uses the nested IF function which sometimes may become complicated to understand.

 Similarly we can add any number of multiple conditions to calculate the average.

Weighted Average or (Weighted Mean):

An Arithmetic Average that takes into account the importance of the items making up the average. In calculating the value of a share index, the share price are usually weighted in the some way, most often by the market capitalization of the company.

In Google Docs Spreadsheets Average function return the average of a range of data. if you want to calculate a weighted average there is no direct function to calculate this,  so we have to manipulate this using the some the native function available in google native functions.


Suppose a trader buys commodity on four occasions -100 tonnes at 70 per tonne, 300  tonnes at 80 per tonne, 50 tonnes at 95 per tonne and 60 tonnes at 75 per tonne. the purchase total 510 tonnes. the Simple average price would be (70+80+50+60)/4=65. However, the weighted average, taking into account the amount purchased on each transaction is

[(100 X 70) + (300 X 80) + (50 X 95) + (60 X 75)]/510=78.92


In the Spreadsheet this can be done using Sumproduct function and Sum function

in cell D8 we have used the basic formula as show the above example.

to get the single cell formula we have used the Sumproduct and sum formula to get the weighted average as show in the Cell C11.

In Cell C10 we have average formula